CoReg.py 81.4 KB
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

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# AROSICS - Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software
#
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# Copyright (C) 2017-2021  Daniel Scheffler (GFZ Potsdam, daniel.scheffler@gfz-potsdam.de)
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#
# This software was developed within the context of the GeoMultiSens project funded
# by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
# (project grant code: 01 IS 14 010 A-C).
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
# the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
# Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any
# later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
# FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more
# details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along
# with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

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import os
import time
import warnings
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from copy import copy
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from typing import Iterable, Union, Tuple, List, Optional  # noqa F401
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# custom
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from osgeo import gdal
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import numpy as np
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try:
    import pyfftw
except ImportError:
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    pyfftw = None
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from shapely.geometry import Point, Polygon
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# internal modules
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from .DeShifter import DESHIFTER, _dict_rspAlg_rsp_Int
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from . import geometry as GEO
from . import plotting as PLT
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from geoarray import GeoArray
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from py_tools_ds.convenience.object_oriented import alias_property
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from py_tools_ds.geo.coord_calc import get_corner_coordinates
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from py_tools_ds.geo.vector.topology import get_overlap_polygon, get_smallest_boxImYX_that_contains_boxMapYX
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from py_tools_ds.geo.projection import prj_equal
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from py_tools_ds.geo.vector.geometry import boxObj, round_shapelyPoly_coords
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from py_tools_ds.geo.coord_grid import move_shapelyPoly_to_image_grid, is_coord_grid_equal
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from py_tools_ds.geo.coord_trafo import reproject_shapelyGeometry, mapXY2imXY, imXY2mapXY
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from py_tools_ds.geo.raster.reproject import warp_ndarray
from py_tools_ds.geo.map_info import geotransform2mapinfo
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from py_tools_ds.io.vector.writer import write_shp
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__author__ = 'Daniel Scheffler'
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class GeoArray_CoReg(GeoArray):
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    def __init__(self,
                 CoReg_params: dict,
                 imID: str
                 ) -> None:
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        assert imID in ['ref', 'shift']
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        # run GeoArray init
        path_or_geoArr = CoReg_params['im_ref'] if imID == 'ref' else CoReg_params['im_tgt']
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        nodata = CoReg_params['nodata'][0 if imID == 'ref' else 1]
        progress = CoReg_params['progress']
        q = CoReg_params['q'] if not CoReg_params['v'] else False
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        super(GeoArray_CoReg, self).__init__(path_or_geoArr, nodata=nodata, progress=progress, q=q)
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        self.imID = imID
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        self.imName = 'reference image' if imID == 'ref' else 'image to be shifted'
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        self.v = CoReg_params['v']
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        assert isinstance(self, GeoArray), \
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            'Something went wrong with the creation of GeoArray instance for the %s. The created ' \
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            'instance does not seem to belong to the GeoArray class. If you are working in Jupyter Notebook, reset ' \
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            'the kernel and try again.' % self.imName
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        # set title to be used in plots
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        self.title = os.path.basename(self.filePath) if self.filePath else self.imName
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        # validate params
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        # assert self.prj, 'The %s has no projection.' % self.imName # TODO
        # assert not re.search('LOCAL_CS', self.prj), 'The %s is not georeferenced.' % self.imName # TODO
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        assert self.gt, 'The %s has no map information.' % self.imName

        # set band4match
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        self.band4match = (CoReg_params['r_b4match'] if imID == 'ref' else CoReg_params['s_b4match']) - 1
        assert self.bands >= self.band4match + 1 >= 1, \
            "The %s has %s %s. So its band number to match must be %s%s. Got %s." \
            % (self.imName, self.bands, 'bands' if self.bands > 1 else
               'band', 'between 1 and ' if self.bands > 1 else '', self.bands, self.band4match)
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        # set footprint_poly
        given_footprint_poly = CoReg_params['footprint_poly_%s' % ('ref' if imID == 'ref' else 'tgt')]
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        given_corner_coord = CoReg_params['data_corners_%s' % ('ref' if imID == 'ref' else 'tgt')]
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        if given_footprint_poly:
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            self.footprint_poly = given_footprint_poly
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        elif given_corner_coord is not None:
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            self.footprint_poly = Polygon(given_corner_coord)
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        elif not CoReg_params['calc_corners']:
            # use the image extent
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            self.footprint_poly = Polygon(get_corner_coordinates(gt=self.gt, cols=self.cols, rows=self.rows))
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        else:
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            # footprint_poly is calculated automatically by GeoArray
            if not CoReg_params['q']:
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                print('Calculating footprint polygon and actual data corner coordinates for %s...' % self.imName)
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            self.calc_mask_nodata(fromBand=self.band4match)  # this avoids that all bands have to be read
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            with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as w:
                _ = self.footprint_poly  # execute getter

            if len(w) > 0 and 'disjunct polygone(s) outside' in str(w[-1].message):
                warnings.warn('The footprint of the %s contains multiple separate image parts. '
                              'AROSICS will only process the largest image part.' % self.imName)
                # FIXME use a convex hull as footprint poly

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        # validate footprint poly
        if not self.footprint_poly.is_valid:
            self.footprint_poly = self.footprint_poly.buffer(0)

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        if not self.q:
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            print('Bounding box of calculated footprint for %s:\n\t%s' % (self.imName, self.footprint_poly.bounds))
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        # add bad data mask
        given_mask = CoReg_params['mask_baddata_%s' % ('ref' if imID == 'ref' else 'tgt')]
        if given_mask:
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            self.mask_baddata = given_mask  # runs GeoArray.mask_baddata.setter -> sets it to BadDataMask()
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    poly = alias_property('footprint_poly')  # ensures that self.poly is updated if self.footprint_poly is updated
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class COREG(object):
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    """The COREG class detects and corrects global X/Y shifts between a target and reference image.
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    Geometric shifts are calculated at a specific (adjustable) image position. Correction performs a global shifting
    in X- or Y direction.

    See help(COREG) for documentation!
    """
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    def __init__(self,
                 im_ref: Union[GeoArray, str],
                 im_tgt: Union[GeoArray, str],
                 path_out: str = None,
                 fmt_out: str = 'ENVI',
                 out_crea_options: list = None,
                 r_b4match: int = 1,
                 s_b4match: int = 1,
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                 wp: Tuple[float, float] = (None, None),
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                 ws: Tuple[int, int] = (256, 256),
                 max_iter: int = 5,
                 max_shift: int = 5,
                 align_grids: bool = False,
                 match_gsd: bool = False,
                 out_gsd: Tuple[float] = None,
                 target_xyGrid: List[List] = None,
                 resamp_alg_deshift: str = 'cubic',
                 resamp_alg_calc: str = 'cubic',
                 footprint_poly_ref: str = None,
                 footprint_poly_tgt: str = None,
                 data_corners_ref: list = None,
                 data_corners_tgt: list = None,
                 nodata: Tuple = (None, None),
                 calc_corners: bool = True,
                 binary_ws: bool = True,
                 mask_baddata_ref: Union[GeoArray, str] = None,
                 mask_baddata_tgt: Union[GeoArray, str] = None,
                 CPUs: int = None,
                 force_quadratic_win: bool = True,
                 progress: bool = True,
                 v: bool = False,
                 path_verbose_out: str = None,
                 q: bool = False,
                 ignore_errors: bool = False
                 ) -> None:
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        """Get an instance of the COREG class.
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        :param im_ref:
            source path (any GDAL compatible image format is supported) or GeoArray instance of reference image

        :param im_tgt:
            source path (any GDAL compatible image format is supported) or GeoArray instance of image to be shifted

        :param path_out:
            target path of the coregistered image
            - if None (default), the method correct_shifts() does not write to disk
            - if 'auto': /dir/of/im1/<im1>__shifted_to__<im0>.bsq

        :param fmt_out:
            raster file format for output file. ignored if path_out is None. can be any GDAL compatible raster file
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            format (e.g. 'ENVI', 'GTIFF'; default: ENVI). Refer to https://gdal.org/drivers/raster/index.html to get a
            full list of supported formats.
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        :param out_crea_options:
          GDAL creation options for the output image, e.g. ["QUALITY=80", "REVERSIBLE=YES", "WRITE_METADATA=YES"]

        :param r_b4match:
            band of reference image to be used for matching (starts with 1; default: 1)

        :param s_b4match:
            band of shift image to be used for matching (starts with 1; default: 1)

        :param wp:
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            custom matching window position as (X, Y) map coordinate in the same projection like the reference image
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            (default: central position of image overlap)

        :param ws:
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            custom matching window size [pixels] as (X, Y) tuple (default: (256,256))
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        :param max_iter:
            maximum number of iterations for matching (default: 5)

        :param max_shift:
            maximum shift distance in reference image pixel units (default: 5 px)

        :param align_grids:
            align the coordinate grids of the image to be and the reference image (default: False)

        :param match_gsd:
            match the output pixel size to pixel size of the reference image (default: False)

        :param out_gsd:
            xgsd ygsd: set the output pixel size in map units
            (default: original pixel size of the image to be shifted)

        :param target_xyGrid:
            a list with a target x-grid and a target y-grid like [[15,45], [15,45]]
            This overrides 'out_gsd', 'align_grids' and 'match_gsd'.

        :param resamp_alg_deshift:
            the resampling algorithm to be used for shift correction (if neccessary)
            - valid algorithms: nearest, bilinear, cubic, cubic_spline, lanczos, average, mode, max, min, med, q1, q3
            - default: cubic

        :param resamp_alg_calc:
            the resampling algorithm to be used for all warping processes during calculatio of spatial shift
            - valid algorithms: nearest, bilinear, cubic, cubic_spline, lanczos, average, mode, max, min, med, q1, q3
            - default: cubic (highly recommended)

        :param footprint_poly_ref:
            footprint polygon of the reference image (WKT string or shapely.geometry.Polygon),
             e.g. 'POLYGON ((299999 6000000, 299999 5890200, 409799 5890200, 409799 6000000, 299999 6000000))'

        :param footprint_poly_tgt:
            footprint polygon of the image to be shifted (WKT string or shapely.geometry.Polygon)
            e.g. 'POLYGON ((299999 6000000, 299999 5890200, 409799 5890200, 409799 6000000, 299999 6000000))'

        :param data_corners_ref:
            map coordinates of data corners within reference image. ignored if footprint_poly_ref is given.

        :param data_corners_tgt:
            map coordinates of data corners within image to be shifted. ignored if footprint_poly_tgt is given.

        :param nodata:
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            no-data values for reference image and image to be shifted. The default is (None, None) which indicates
            that there is no specific no-data value for both of the input images.
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        :param calc_corners:
             calculate true positions of the dataset corners in order to get a useful matching window position within
             the actual image overlap (default: 1; deactivated if '-cor0' and '-cor1' are given

        :param binary_ws:
            use binary X/Y dimensions for the matching window (default: 1)

        :param mask_baddata_ref:
            path to a 2D boolean mask file (or an instance of GeoArray) for the reference image where all bad data
            pixels (e.g. clouds) are marked with True and the remaining pixels with False. Must have the same
            geographic extent and projection like 'im_ref'. The mask is used to check if the chosen matching window
            position is valid in the sense of useful data. Otherwise this window position is rejected.

        :param mask_baddata_tgt:
            path to a 2D boolean mask file (or an instance of GeoArray) for the image to be shifted where all bad data
            pixels (e.g. clouds) are marked with True and the remaining pixels with False. Must have the same
            geographic extent and projection like 'im_ref'. The mask is used to check if the chosen matching window
            position is valid in the sense of useful data. Otherwise this window position is rejected.

        :param CPUs:
            number of CPUs to use during pixel grid equalization (default: None, which means 'all CPUs available')

        :param force_quadratic_win:
            force a quadratic matching window (default: 1)

        :param progress:
            show progress bars (default: True)

        :param v:
            verbose mode (default: False)

        :param path_verbose_out:
            an optional output directory for intermediate results
            (if not given, no intermediate results are written to disk)

        :param q:
            quiet mode (default: False)

        :param ignore_errors:
            Useful for batch processing. (default: False)
            In case of error COREG.success == False and COREG.x_shift_px/COREG.y_shift_px is None
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        """
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        self.params = dict([x for x in locals().items() if x[0] != "self"])
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        # input validation
        if gdal.GetDriverByName(fmt_out) is None:
            raise ValueError(fmt_out, "'%s' is not a supported GDAL driver." % fmt_out)

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        if match_gsd and out_gsd:
            warnings.warn("'-out_gsd' is ignored because '-match_gsd' is set.\n")
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        if out_gsd and (not isinstance(out_gsd, list) or len(out_gsd) != 2):
            raise ValueError(out_gsd, 'out_gsd must be a list with two values.')

        if data_corners_ref and not isinstance(data_corners_ref[0], list):
            # group if not [[x,y],[x,y]..] but [x,y,x,y,]
            data_corners_ref = [data_corners_ref[i:i + 2]
                                for i in range(0, len(data_corners_ref), 2)]

        if data_corners_tgt and not isinstance(data_corners_tgt[0], list):
            # group if not [[x,y],[x,y]..]
            data_corners_tgt = [data_corners_tgt[i:i + 2]
                                for i in range(0, len(data_corners_tgt), 2)]

        if nodata and (not isinstance(nodata, Iterable) or len(nodata) != 2):
            raise ValueError(nodata, "'nodata' must be an iterable with two values. "
                                     "Got %s with length %s." % (type(nodata), len(nodata)))

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        for rspAlg in [resamp_alg_deshift, resamp_alg_calc]:
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            if rspAlg not in _dict_rspAlg_rsp_Int.keys():
                raise ValueError("'%s' is not a supported resampling algorithm." % rspAlg)

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        if resamp_alg_calc in ['average', 5] and (v or not q):
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            warnings.warn("The resampling algorithm 'average' causes sinus-shaped patterns in fft images that will "
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                          "affect the precision of the calculated spatial shifts! It is highly recommended to "
                          "choose another resampling algorithm.")
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        self.path_out = path_out  # updated by self.set_outpathes
        self.fmt_out = fmt_out
        self.out_creaOpt = out_crea_options
        self.win_pos_XY = wp  # updated by self.get_opt_winpos_winsize()
        self.win_size_XY = ws  # updated by self.get_opt_winpos_winsize()
        self.max_iter = max_iter
        self.max_shift = max_shift
        self.align_grids = align_grids
        self.match_gsd = match_gsd
        self.out_gsd = out_gsd
        self.target_xyGrid = target_xyGrid
        self.rspAlg_DS = resamp_alg_deshift \
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            if isinstance(resamp_alg_deshift, str) else _dict_rspAlg_rsp_Int[resamp_alg_deshift]
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        self.rspAlg_calc = resamp_alg_calc \
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            if isinstance(resamp_alg_calc, str) else _dict_rspAlg_rsp_Int[resamp_alg_calc]
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        self.calc_corners = calc_corners
        self.CPUs = CPUs
        self.bin_ws = binary_ws
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        self.force_quadratic_win = force_quadratic_win
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        self.v = v
        self.path_verbose_out = path_verbose_out
        self.q = q if not v else False  # overridden by v
        self.progress = progress if not q else False  # overridden by q

        self.ignErr = ignore_errors
        self.max_win_sz_changes = 3  # TODO: änderung der window size, falls nach max_iter kein valider match gefunden
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        self.ref: Optional[GeoArray_CoReg] = None  # set by self.get_image_params
        self.shift: Optional[GeoArray_CoReg] = None  # set by self.get_image_params
        self.matchBox: Optional[boxObj] = None  # set by self.get_clip_window_properties()
        self.otherBox: Optional[boxObj] = None  # set by self.get_clip_window_properties()
        self.matchWin: Optional[GeoArray] = None  # set by self._get_image_windows_to_match()
        self.otherWin: Optional[GeoArray] = None  # set by self._get_image_windows_to_match()
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        self.overlap_poly = None  # set by self._get_overlap_properties()
        self.overlap_percentage = None  # set by self._get_overlap_properties()
        self.overlap_area = None  # set by self._get_overlap_properties()
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        self.imfft_xgsd = None  # set by self.get_clip_window_properties()
        self.imfft_ygsd = None  # set by self.get_clip_window_properties()
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        self.fftw_works = None  # set by self._calc_shifted_cross_power_spectrum()
        self.fftw_win_size_YX = None  # set by calc_shifted_cross_power_spectrum()

        self.x_shift_px = None  # always in shift image units (image coords) # set by calculate_spatial_shifts()
        self.y_shift_px = None  # always in shift image units (image coords) # set by calculate_spatial_shifts()
        self.x_shift_map = None  # set by self.get_updated_map_info()
        self.y_shift_map = None  # set by self.get_updated_map_info()
        self.vec_length_map = None
        self.vec_angle_deg = None
        self.updated_map_info = None  # set by self.get_updated_map_info()
        self.ssim_orig = None  # set by self._validate_ssim_improvement()
        self.ssim_deshifted = None  # set by self._validate_ssim_improvement()
        self._ssim_improved = None  # private attribute to be filled by self.ssim_improved
        self.shift_reliability = None  # set by self.calculate_spatial_shifts()

        self.tracked_errors = []  # expanded each time an error occurs
        self.success = None  # default
        self.deshift_results = None  # set by self.correct_shifts()
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        # try:
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        gdal.AllRegister()
        self._get_image_params()
        self._set_outpathes(im_ref, im_tgt)
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        self.grid2use = 'ref' if self.shift.xgsd <= self.ref.xgsd else 'shift'
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        if self.v:
            print('resolutions: ', self.ref.xgsd, self.shift.xgsd)
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        self._get_overlap_properties()
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        if self.v and self.path_verbose_out:
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            write_shp(os.path.join(self.path_verbose_out, 'poly_imref.shp'), self.ref.poly, self.ref.prj)
            write_shp(os.path.join(self.path_verbose_out, 'poly_im2shift.shp'), self.shift.poly, self.shift.prj)
            write_shp(os.path.join(self.path_verbose_out, 'overlap_poly.shp'), self.overlap_poly, self.ref.prj)
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        # FIXME: transform_mapPt1_to_mapPt2(im2shift_center_map, ds_imref.GetProjection(), ds_im2shift.GetProjection())
        # FIXME später basteln für den fall, dass projektionen nicht gleich sind
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        # get_clip_window_properties
        self._get_opt_winpos_winsize()
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        if not self.q:
            print('Matching window position (X,Y): %s/%s' % (self.win_pos_XY[0], self.win_pos_XY[1]))
        self._get_clip_window_properties()  # sets self.matchBox, self.otherBox and much more
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        if self.v and self.path_verbose_out and self.matchBox.mapPoly and self.success is not False:
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            write_shp(os.path.join(self.path_verbose_out, 'poly_matchWin.shp'),
                      self.matchBox.mapPoly, self.matchBox.prj)
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        self.success = False if self.success is False or not self.matchBox.boxMapYX else None
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        # except BaseException:

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        self._coreg_info = None  # private attribute to be filled by self.coreg_info property
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    def _handle_error(self, error, warn=False, warnMsg=None):
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        """Append the given error to self.tracked_errors.

        This sets self.success to False and raises the error in case self.ignore_errors = True.
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        :param error:   instance of an error
        :param warn:    whether to give a warning in case error would be ignored otherwise
        :param warnMsg: a custom message for the warning
        :return:
        """
        warn = warn or warnMsg is not None or self.v

        self.tracked_errors.append(error)
        self.success = False

        if self.ignErr and warn:
            warnMsg = repr(error) if not warnMsg else warnMsg
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            print('\nWARNING: ' + warnMsg)
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        if not self.ignErr:
            raise error

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    def _set_outpathes(self,
                       im_ref: Union[(GeoArray, str)],
                       im_tgt: Union[(GeoArray, str)]
                       ) -> None:
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        def get_baseN(path):
            return os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(path))[0]

        # get input paths
        def get_input_path(im):
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            path = im.filePath if isinstance(im, GeoArray) else im

            if isinstance(im, GeoArray) and im.filePath is None and self.path_out == 'auto':
                raise ValueError(self.path_out, "The output path must be explicitly set in case the input "
                                                "reference or target image is in-memory (without a reference to a "
                                                "physical file on disk). Received path_out='%s'." % self.path_out)

            return path
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        path_im_ref = get_input_path(im_ref)
        path_im_tgt = get_input_path(im_tgt)
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        if self.path_out:  # this also applies to self.path_out='auto'
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            if self.path_out == 'auto':
                dir_out, fName_out = os.path.dirname(path_im_tgt), ''
            else:
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                dir_out, fName_out = os.path.split(self.path_out)
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            if dir_out and fName_out:
                # a valid output path is given => do nothing
                pass

            else:
                # automatically create an output directory and filename if not given
                if not dir_out:
                    if not path_im_ref:
                        dir_out = os.path.abspath(os.path.curdir)
                    else:
                        dir_out = os.path.dirname(path_im_ref)

                if not fName_out:
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                    ext = 'bsq' if self.fmt_out == 'ENVI' else \
                        gdal.GetDriverByName(self.fmt_out).GetMetadataItem(gdal.DMD_EXTENSION)
                    fName_out = fName_out if fName_out not in ['.', ''] else \
                        '%s__shifted_to__%s' % (get_baseN(path_im_tgt), get_baseN(path_im_ref))
                    fName_out = fName_out + '.%s' % ext if ext else fName_out
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                self.path_out = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(dir_out, fName_out))
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                assert ' ' not in self.path_out, \
                    "The path of the output image contains whitespaces. This is not supported by GDAL."
        else:
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            # this only happens if COREG is not instanced from within Python and self.path_out is explicitly set to None
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            # => DESHIFTER will return an array
            pass

        if self.v:
            if self.path_verbose_out:
                dir_out, dirname_out = os.path.split(self.path_verbose_out)

                if not dir_out:
                    if self.path_out:
                        self.path_verbose_out = os.path.dirname(self.path_out)
                    else:
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                        self.path_verbose_out = \
                            os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.curdir, 'CoReg_verboseOut__%s__shifted_to__%s'
                                                         % (get_baseN(path_im_tgt), get_baseN(path_im_ref))))
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                elif dirname_out and not dir_out:
                    self.path_verbose_out = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.curdir, dirname_out))

                assert ' ' not in self.path_verbose_out, \
                    "'path_verbose_out' contains whitespaces. This is not supported by GDAL."

        else:
            self.path_verbose_out = None

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        if self.path_verbose_out and not os.path.isdir(self.path_verbose_out):
            os.makedirs(self.path_verbose_out)
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    def _get_image_params(self) -> None:
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        self.ref = GeoArray_CoReg(self.params, 'ref')
        self.shift = GeoArray_CoReg(self.params, 'shift')
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        if not prj_equal(self.ref.prj, self.shift.prj):
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            from pyproj import CRS

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            crs_ref = CRS.from_user_input(self.ref.prj)
            crs_shift = CRS.from_user_input(self.shift.prj)

            name_ref, name_shift = \
                (crs_ref.name, crs_shift.name) if not crs_ref.name == crs_shift.name else (crs_ref.srs, crs_shift.srs)

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            raise RuntimeError(
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                'Input projections are not equal. Different projections are currently not supported. '
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                'Got %s vs. %s.' % (name_ref, name_shift))
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    def _get_overlap_properties(self) -> None:
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        with warnings.catch_warnings():
            # already warned in GeoArray_CoReg.__init__()
            warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", category=RuntimeWarning, message=".*disjunct.*")

            overlap_tmp = get_overlap_polygon(self.ref.poly, self.shift.poly, self.v)

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        self.overlap_poly = overlap_tmp['overlap poly']  # has to be in reference projection
        self.overlap_percentage = overlap_tmp['overlap percentage']
        self.overlap_area = overlap_tmp['overlap area']
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        assert self.overlap_poly, 'The input images have no spatial overlap.'

        # overlap are must at least cover 16*16 pixels
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        px_area = self.ref.xgsd * self.ref.ygsd if self.grid2use == 'ref' else self.shift.xgsd * self.shift.ygsd
        px_covered = self.overlap_area / px_area
        assert px_covered > 16 * 16, \
            'Overlap area covers only %s pixels. At least 16*16 pixels are needed.' % px_covered
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    def equalize_pixGrids(self) -> None:
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        """Equalize image grids and projections of reference and target image (align target to reference)."""
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        if not (prj_equal(self.ref.prj, self.shift.prj) and
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                is_coord_grid_equal(self.ref.gt, *self.shift.xygrid_specs, tolerance=1e8)):
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            if not self.q:
                print("Equalizing pixel grids and projections of reference and target image...")
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            if self.grid2use == 'ref':
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                # resample target image to reference image
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                if self.shift.bands > 1:
                    self.shift = self.shift.get_subset(zslice=slice(self.shift.band4match, self.shift.band4match + 1))
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                self.shift.reproject_to_new_grid(prototype=self.ref, CPUs=self.CPUs)
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                self.shift.band4match = 0  # after resampling there is only one band in the GeoArray
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            else:
                # resample reference image to target image
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                if self.ref.bands > 1:
                    self.ref = self.ref.get_subset(zslice=slice(self.ref.band4match, self.ref.band4match + 1))
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                self.ref.reproject_to_new_grid(prototype=self.shift, CPUs=self.CPUs)
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                self.ref.band4match = 0  # after resampling there is only one band in the GeoArray
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            # self.ref.gt = (self.ref.gt[0], 1, self.ref.gt[2], self.ref.gt[3], self.ref.gt[4], -1)
            # self.shift.gt = (self.shift.gt[0], 1, self.shift.gt[2], self.shift.gt[3], self.shift.gt[4], -1)

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    def show_image_footprints(self):
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        """Show a web map containing the calculated footprints and overlap area of the input images.

        NOTE: This method is intended to be called from Jupyter Notebook.
        """
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        # TODO different colors for polygons
        assert self.overlap_poly, 'Please calculate the overlap polygon first.'

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        import folium
        import geojson
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        refPoly = reproject_shapelyGeometry(self.ref.poly, self.ref.prj, 4326)
        shiftPoly = reproject_shapelyGeometry(self.shift.poly, self.shift.prj, 4326)
        overlapPoly = reproject_shapelyGeometry(self.overlap_poly, self.shift.prj, 4326)
        matchBoxPoly = reproject_shapelyGeometry(self.matchBox.mapPoly, self.shift.prj, 4326)
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        m = folium.Map(location=tuple(np.array(overlapPoly.centroid.coords.xy).flatten())[::-1])
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        for poly in [refPoly, shiftPoly, overlapPoly, matchBoxPoly]:
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            gjs = geojson.Feature(geometry=poly, properties={})
            folium.GeoJson(gjs).add_to(m)
        return m

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    def show_matchWin(self,
                      figsize: tuple = (15, 15),
                      interactive: bool = True,
                      after_correction: bool = None,
                      pmin=2,
                      pmax=98):
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        """Show the image content within the matching window.
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        :param figsize:             figure size
        :param interactive:         whether to return an interactive figure based on 'holoviews' library
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        :param after_correction:    True/False: show the image content AFTER shift correction or before
                                    None: show both states - before and after correction (default)
        :param pmin:                percentage to be used for excluding the darkest pixels from stretching (default: 2)
        :param pmax:                percentage to be used for excluding the brightest pixels from stretching
                                    (default: 98)
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        :return:
        """
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        if interactive:
            # use Holoviews
            try:
                import holoviews as hv
            except ImportError:
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                hv = None
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            if not hv:
                raise ImportError(
                    "This method requires the library 'holoviews'. It can be installed for Anaconda with "
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                    "the shell command 'conda install -c conda-forge holoviews bokeh'.")
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            hv.notebook_extension('matplotlib')
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            hv.Store.add_style_opts(hv.Image, ['vmin', 'vmax'])

            # hv.Store.option_setters.options().Image = hv.Options('style', cmap='gnuplot2')
            # hv.Store.add_style_opts(hv.Image, ['cmap'])
            # renderer = hv.Store.renderers['matplotlib'].instance(fig='svg', holomap='gif')
            # RasterPlot = renderer.plotting_class(hv.Image)
            # RasterPlot.cmap = 'gray'
            otherWin_corr = self._get_deshifted_otherWin()
            xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax = self.matchBox.boundsMap

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            def get_hv_image(geoArr):
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                from skimage.exposure import rescale_intensity  # import here to avoid static TLS ImportError

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                arr_masked = np.ma.masked_equal(geoArr[:], geoArr.nodata)
                vmin = np.nanpercentile(arr_masked.compressed(), pmin)
                vmax = np.nanpercentile(arr_masked.compressed(), pmax)
                arr2plot = rescale_intensity(arr_masked, in_range=(vmin, vmax), out_range='int8')

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                return hv.Image(arr2plot, bounds=(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax))\
                    .opts(style={'cmap': 'gray',
                                 'vmin': vmin,
                                 'vmax': vmax,
                                 'interpolation': 'none'},
                          plot={'fig_inches': figsize,
                                # 'fig_size': 100,
                                'show_grid': True})
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            hvIm_matchWin = get_hv_image(self.matchWin)
            hvIm_otherWin_orig = get_hv_image(self.otherWin)
            hvIm_otherWin_corr = get_hv_image(otherWin_corr)
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            if after_correction is None:
                # view both states
                print('Matching window before and after correction (above and below): ')
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                # get layouts (docs on options: https://holoviews.org/user_guide)
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                layout_before = (hvIm_matchWin + hvIm_matchWin).opts(plot=dict(fig_inches=figsize))
                layout_after = (hvIm_otherWin_orig + hvIm_otherWin_corr).opts(plot=dict(fig_inches=figsize))
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                # plot!
                imgs = {1: layout_before, 2: layout_after}
                hmap = hv.HoloMap(imgs, kdims=['image']).collate().cols(1)

            else:
                # view state before or after correction
                imgs = {1: hvIm_matchWin, 2: hvIm_otherWin_corr if after_correction else hvIm_otherWin_orig}
                hmap = hv.HoloMap(imgs, kdims=['image'])

            # Construct a HoloMap by evaluating the function over all the keys
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            # hmap = hv.HoloMap(imgs_corr, kdims=['image']) +  hv.HoloMap(imgs_corr, kdims=['image'])
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            # Construct a HoloMap by defining the sampling on the Dimension
            # dmap = hv.DynamicMap(image_slice, kdims=[hv.Dimension('z_axis', values=keys)])
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            return hmap
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        else:
            # TODO add titles
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            # TODO handle after_correction=None here
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            self.matchWin.show(figsize=figsize)
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            if after_correction:
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                self._get_deshifted_otherWin().show(figsize=figsize, pmin=pmin, pmax=pmax)
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            else:
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                self.otherWin.show(figsize=figsize, pmin=pmin, pmax=pmax)
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    def show_cross_power_spectrum(self, interactive: bool = False) -> None:
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        """Show a 3D surface of the cross power spectrum.

        NOTE: The cross power spectrum is the result from phase correlating the reference and target
              image within the matching window.
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        :param interactive:  whether to return an interactice 3D surface plot based on 'plotly' library
        :return:
        """
        if interactive:
            # create plotly 3D surface

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            # import plotly.plotly as py # online mode -> every plot is uploaded into online plotly account
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            from plotly.offline import iplot, init_notebook_mode
            import plotly.graph_objs as go

            init_notebook_mode(connected=True)

            z_data = self._calc_shifted_cross_power_spectrum()
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            data = [go.Surface(z=z_data)]
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            layout = go.Layout(
                title='cross power spectrum',
                autosize=False,
                width=1000,
                height=1000,
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                margin={'l': 65, 'r': 50, 'b': 65, 't': 90})
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            fig = go.Figure(data=data, layout=layout)
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            return iplot(fig, filename='SCPS')

        else:
            # use matplotlib
            scps = self._calc_shifted_cross_power_spectrum()
            PLT.subplot_3dsurface(scps.astype(np.float32))

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    def _get_opt_winpos_winsize(self) -> None:
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        """Calculate optimal window position and size in reference image units.

        NOTE: The returned values are computed according to DGM, cloud_mask and trueCornerLonLat.
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        """
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        # dummy algorithm: get center position of overlap instead of searching ideal window position in whole overlap
        # TODO automatischer Algorithmus zur Bestimmung der optimalen Window Position

        wp = tuple(self.win_pos_XY)
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        assert type(self.win_pos_XY) in [tuple, list, np.ndarray], \
            'The window position must be a tuple of two elements. Got %s with %s elements.' % (type(wp), len(wp))
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        wp = tuple(wp)

        if None in wp:
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            # use centroid point if possible
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            overlap_center_pos_x, overlap_center_pos_y = self.overlap_poly.centroid.coords.xy
            wp = (wp[0] if wp[0] else overlap_center_pos_x[0]), (wp[1] if wp[1] else overlap_center_pos_y[0])

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            # validate window position
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            if not self.overlap_poly.buffer(1e-5).contains(Point(wp)):
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                # in case the centroid point is not within overlap area
                if not self.q:
                    warnings.warn("The centroid point of the two input images could not be used as matching window "
                                  "position since it is outside of the overlap area. Instead the so called "
                                  "'representative point' is used. Alternatively you can provide your own window "
                                  "position as input parameter.")

                # -> use representative point: a point that is garanteed to be within overlap polygon
                overlap_center_pos_x, overlap_center_pos_y = self.overlap_poly.representative_point().coords.xy
                wp = overlap_center_pos_x[0], overlap_center_pos_y[0]

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            assert self.overlap_poly.buffer(1e-5).contains(Point(wp))
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        else:
            # validate window position
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            if not self.overlap_poly.buffer(1e-5).contains(Point(wp)):
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                self._handle_error(ValueError('The provided window position %s/%s is outside of the overlap '
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                                              'area of the two input images. Check the coordinates.' % wp))
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        # check if window position is within bad data area if a respective mask has been provided
        for im in [self.ref, self.shift]:
            if im.mask_baddata is not None:
                imX, imY = mapXY2imXY(wp, im.mask_baddata.gt)

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                if im.mask_baddata[int(imY), int(imX)] is True:
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                    self._handle_error(
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                        RuntimeError('According to the provided bad data mask for the %s the chosen window position '
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                                     '%s / %s is within a bad data area. Using this window position for coregistration '
                                     'is not reasonable. Please provide a better window position!'
                                     % (im.imName, wp[0], wp[1])))
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        self.win_pos_XY = wp
        self.win_size_XY = (int(self.win_size_XY[0]), int(self.win_size_XY[1])) if self.win_size_XY else (512, 512)
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    def _get_clip_window_properties(self) -> None:
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        """Calculate all properties of the matching window and the other window.

        These windows are used to read the corresponding image positions in the reference and the target image.

        NOTE: Even if X- and Y-dimension of the target window is equal, the output window can be NON-quadratic!
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        """
        # FIXME image sizes like 10000*256 are still possible

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        wpX, wpY = self.win_pos_XY
        wsX, wsY = self.win_size_XY
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        # image units -> map units
        ref_wsX = wsX * self.ref.xgsd
        ref_wsY = wsY * self.ref.ygsd
        shift_wsX = wsX * self.shift.xgsd
        shift_wsY = wsY * self.shift.ygsd

        ref_box_kwargs = \
            dict(wp=(wpX, wpY),
                 ws=(ref_wsX, ref_wsY),
                 gt=self.ref.gt)
        shift_box_kwargs = \
            dict(wp=(wpX, wpY),
                 ws=(shift_wsX, shift_wsY),
                 gt=self.shift.gt)
        matchBox =\
            boxObj(**ref_box_kwargs) if self.grid2use == 'ref' else \
            boxObj(**shift_box_kwargs)
        otherBox = \
            boxObj(**shift_box_kwargs) if self.grid2use == 'ref' else \
            boxObj(**ref_box_kwargs)
        overlapWin = \
            boxObj(mapPoly=self.overlap_poly,
                   gt=self.ref.gt)
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        # clip matching window to overlap area
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        matchBox.mapPoly = matchBox.mapPoly.intersection(overlapWin.mapPoly)

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        # check if matchBox extent touches no data area of the image -> if yes: shrink it
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        overlapPoly_within_matchWin = matchBox.mapPoly.intersection(self.overlap_poly)
        if overlapPoly_within_matchWin.area < matchBox.mapPoly.area:
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            wsX_start, wsY_start = \
                1 if wsX >= wsY else \
                wsX / wsY, 1 if wsY >= wsX else \
                wsY / wsX
            box = boxObj(**dict(wp=(wpX, wpY),
                                ws=(wsX_start, wsY_start),
                                gt=matchBox.gt))
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            while True:
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                box.buffer_imXY(1, 1)
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                if not box.mapPoly.within(overlapPoly_within_matchWin):
                    box.buffer_imXY(-1, -1)
                    matchBox = box
                    break
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        # move matching window to imref grid or im2shift grid
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        mW_rows, mW_cols = \
            (self.ref.rows, self.ref.cols) if self.grid2use == 'ref' else \
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            (self.shift.rows, self.shift.cols)
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        matchBox.mapPoly = move_shapelyPoly_to_image_grid(matchBox.mapPoly,
                                                          matchBox.gt, mW_rows,
                                                          mW_cols,
                                                          'NW')
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        # check, if matchBox was moved outside of overlap_poly when moving it to the image grid
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        if not matchBox.mapPoly.within(overlapWin.mapPoly):
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            # further shrink matchPoly (1 px buffer is enough because the window was only moved to the grid)
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            xLarger, yLarger = matchBox.is_larger_DimXY(overlapWin.boundsIm)
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            matchBox.buffer_imXY(-1 if xLarger else 0,
                                 -1 if yLarger else 0)
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        # matching_win directly on grid2use (fix rounding error through coordinate transformation)
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        matchBox.imPoly = round_shapelyPoly_coords(matchBox.imPoly, precision=0)
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        # check if matching window larger than the other one or equal
        if not (matchBox.mapPoly.within(otherBox.mapPoly) or
                matchBox.mapPoly == otherBox.mapPoly):
            # if yes, find the smallest 'other window' that encloses the matching window
            otherBox.boxImYX = \
                get_smallest_boxImYX_that_contains_boxMapYX(
                    matchBox.boxMapYX,
                    otherBox.gt,
                    tolerance_ndigits=5  # avoids float coordinate rounding issues
                )

        # in case after enlarging the 'other window', it gets too large for the overlap area
        # -> shrink match window and recompute smallest possible other window until everything is fine
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        t_start = time.time()
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        while not otherBox.mapPoly.within(overlapWin.mapPoly):
            xLarger, yLarger = otherBox.is_larger_DimXY(overlapWin.boundsIm)
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            matchBox.buffer_imXY(-1 if xLarger else 0,
                                 -1 if yLarger else 0)
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            previous_area = otherBox.mapPoly.area
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            otherBox.boxImYX = \
                get_smallest_boxImYX_that_contains_boxMapYX(
                    matchBox.boxMapYX,
                    otherBox.gt,
                    tolerance_ndigits=5  # avoids float coordinate rounding issues
                )

            if previous_area == otherBox.mapPoly.area or \
               time.time() - t_start > 1.5:
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                # happens e.g in case of a triangular footprint
                # NOTE: first condition is not always fulfilled -> therefore added timeout of 1.5 sec
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                self._handle_error(
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                    RuntimeError('Matching window in target image is larger than overlap area but further shrinking '
                                 'the matching window is not possible. Check if the footprints of the input data have '
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                                 'been computed correctly.' +
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                                 (' Matching window shrinking timed out.' if time.time() - t_start > 5 else '')))
                break  # break out of while loop in order to avoid that code gets stuck here
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        # output validation
        for winBox in [matchBox, otherBox]:
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            if winBox.imDimsYX[0] < 16 or \
               winBox.imDimsYX[1] < 16:
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                self._handle_error(
                    RuntimeError("One of the input images does not have sufficient gray value information "
                                 "(non-no-data values) for placing a matching window at the position %s. "
                                 "Matching failed." % str((wpX, wpY))))
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        if self.success is not False:
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            # check result -> ProgrammingError if not fulfilled
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            def within_equal(inner, outer):
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                return inner.within(outer.buffer(1e-5)) or \
                       inner.equals(outer)

            assert within_equal(matchBox.mapPoly,
                                otherBox.mapPoly)
            assert within_equal(otherBox.mapPoly,
                                overlapWin.mapPoly)

            if self.grid2use == 'ref':
                self.imfft_xgsd = self.ref.xgsd
                self.imfft_ygsd = self.ref.ygsd
                self.ref.win = matchBox
                self.shift.win = otherBox
            else:
                self.imfft_xgsd = self.shift.xgsd
                self.imfft_ygsd = self.shift.ygsd
                self.ref.win = otherBox
                self.shift.win = matchBox
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            self.matchBox = matchBox
            self.otherBox = otherBox
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            self.ref.win.size_YX = tuple([int(i) for i in self.ref.win.imDimsYX])
            self.shift.win.size_YX = tuple([int(i) for i in self.shift.win.imDimsYX])
            match_win_size_XY = tuple(reversed([int(i) for i in matchBox.imDimsYX]))
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            if not self.q and \
               match_win_size_XY != self.win_size_XY:
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                print('Target window size %s not possible due to too small overlap area or window position too close '
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                      'to an image edge. New matching window size: %s.' % (self.win_size_XY, match_win_size_XY))
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                # write_shp('matchMapPoly.shp', matchBox.mapPoly,matchBox.prj)
                # write_shp('otherMapPoly.shp', otherBox.mapPoly,otherBox.prj)
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    def _get_image_windows_to_match(self) -> None:
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        """Read the matching window and the other window as subsets.
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        Th other window is resampled to the resolution and the pixel grid of the matching window.
        The result consists of two images with the same dimensions and exactly the same corner coordinates.
        """
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        match_fullGeoArr = self.ref if self.grid2use == 'ref' else self.shift
        other_fullGeoArr = self.shift if self.grid2use == 'ref' else self.ref
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        # read matchWin via subset-read -> self.matchWin.data
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        rS, rE, cS, cE = GEO.get_GeoArrayPosition_from_boxImYX(self.matchBox.boxImYX)
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        assert np.array_equal(np.abs(np.array([rS, rE, cS, cE])), np.array([rS, rE, cS, cE])) and \
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            rE <= match_fullGeoArr.rows and cE <= match_fullGeoArr.cols, \
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            'Requested area is not completely within the input array for %s.' % match_fullGeoArr.imName
        self.matchWin = GeoArray(match_fullGeoArr[rS:rE + 1, cS:cE + 1, match_fullGeoArr.band4match],
                                 geotransform=GEO.get_subset_GeoTransform(match_fullGeoArr.gt, self.matchBox.boxImYX),
                                 projection=copy(match_fullGeoArr.prj),
                                 nodata=copy(match_fullGeoArr.nodata))
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        self.matchWin.imID = match_fullGeoArr.imID
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        # read otherWin via subset-read
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        rS, rE, cS, cE = GEO.get_GeoArrayPosition_from_boxImYX(self.otherBox.boxImYX)
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        assert np.array_equal(np.abs(np.array([rS, rE, cS, cE])), np.array([rS, rE, cS, cE])) and \
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            rE <= other_fullGeoArr.rows and cE <= other_fullGeoArr.cols, \
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            'Requested area is not completely within the input array for %s.' % other_fullGeoArr.imName
        self.otherWin = GeoArray(other_fullGeoArr[rS:rE + 1, cS:cE + 1, other_fullGeoArr.band4match],
                                 geotransform=GEO.get_subset_GeoTransform(other_fullGeoArr.gt, self.otherBox.boxImYX),
                                 projection=copy(other_fullGeoArr.prj),
                                 nodata=copy(other_fullGeoArr.nodata))
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        self.otherWin.imID = other_fullGeoArr.imID
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        # self.matchWin.deepcopy_array()
        # self.otherWin.deepcopy_array()
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        if self.v:
            print('Original matching windows:')
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            ref_data, shift_data = (self.matchWin[:], self.otherWin[:]) if self.grid2use == 'ref' else \
                (self.otherWin[:], self.matchWin[:])
            PLT.subplot_imshow([ref_data, shift_data], [self.ref.title, self.shift.title], grid=True)
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        # resample otherWin.arr to the resolution of matchWin AND make sure the pixel edges are identical
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        # (in order to make each image show the same window with the same coordinates)
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        # TODO replace cubic resampling by PSF resampling - average resampling leads to sinus like distortions in the
        # TODO fft image that make a precise coregistration impossible. Thats why there is currently no way around
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